Lotus is the role and unique position in terms of spirituality and culture of the Vietnamese. Long time now, lotus has gone to the heart, into life and culture of the Vietnamese. Enjoy the lotus we can see and recognize the people of Vietnam.
Although born in the mud, but the lotus is not contaminated but has the potential to change life circumstances, because the lotus grows where everyone will make it cloudy where clarification. Lotus has both flavor and color, but the flavor is not too warm but gentle mind, suggests a noble spirit. Lotus discreet, loving, pink and white wings, yellow stamen. From bloom to the fade who do not have to bee or moth catches. Through binding to reach to be about nothing, lotus continues to rise in the sun, opening bud to flower, blooming and incense filled the air.
The formation of the Lotus takes place according to the law of metempsychosis cause of effect. Lotus has the bud – the flower – seeds. The flowers symbolize the past, the lotus shaped lamp support symbolizes the present and lotus seeds symbolize the future, the serial sequence. Thus, the lotus became a symbol of the Buddhist art of the Orient. It symbolizes the beauty of mystical, magical, deep thoughts. Lotus flower also symbolizes the elevating, unyielding of honorable man, clutching heart before the lure of profit, keep themselves clean though in the mud.
From the spiritual significance that, this flower has come into the mind of the people of Vietnam, became icons of architecture and sculpture of the ancient Vietnamese, in art, literature, cuisine …
Until today, when international friends to Vietnam, the first image they see is the golden lotus Vietnam airline on the flight, which shows the image of enlightenment and perfection; life has just recently noble, sacred, both graceful and soft, but no less sturdy, poise, symbolizes the brave people of Vietnam resilience but honest and open.
1. Lotus image in literature and art
When it mention lotus, as Vietnamese people surely everyone know the fork song:
“In a pond nothing the beautiful than lotus
Green leaves, white flowers, yellow stamens
Yellow stamens, white flowers, green leaves
Near the mud but does not stink mud smell “
When old, Mac Dinh Chi in front of King Tran Anh Tong was represented virtue of poem “Ngoc Tinh Lien (lotus flower in the gem well): For the lotus which has more noble, no flowers comparable, although near the mud that does not stink of mud and besides this lotus plant in the jade well again, then lotus more noble . He was like the lotus, whether in the circumstances is still keep elegant sense of purpose and uprightness,much less the right to a good time, King was judicious then he became more noble. Valuable lotus but you have to know to enjoy … “
Village where Uncle Ho born also called Lotus village and perhaps most beautiful lotus is compared with the image of Uncle Ho- the father of the nation, the beloved leader of our:
“Thap Muoi most beautiful is lotus flower
Vietnam’s most beautiful have name of Uncle Ho “
2. Lotus in the traditional art of Vietnamese
In Vietnam, the subject lotus appears quite early in the visual arts, almost at any time can also be artists in the decorative scheme of places of worship or other cultural works of the community. Lotus is mined, reflecting the many different angles layout, appeared constant across the length of the nation’s history through architecture.
Lotus� in art of Dinh – Tien Le dynasty
On some large paving bricks at the temple area of King Dinh and King Le temple, outside the phoenix, bird and had lotus topic. Blueprints of the lotus consists of 4 types.
Lotus has 16 of petals are often shown floating on the large square bricks. Looking at the area (from top to bottom), the general layout drawings form a rounded surface between bricks, consists of 3 layers. Outer layer is 16 petalssort equal create a regular ring. The middle layer consists of the twisted form is classified the same way, connect back together into a second ring, probably represents the pistil. Innermost layer is a circle of 13 dots floating, reflecting mirror with lotus seeds. Thirteen of lotus particles are arranged in the next eight runs from the center, balanced and steady. The lotus petal does not touch anything more than a small torus edge on the perimeter of the wing. Type lotus 16 petals met many in this field period later, at the foot of the rock column list so that middle and stamens are not carved anything and it has many similarities with the decorative scheme in the Korea and Japan.
Type lotus 14 petal on a decorated lotus shaped lamp support earthenware, high approx 10.5 cm. Lotus shaped lamp support circle, decorate a flower in the middle of the 14 petal and around the lotus is a daisy and tape the wire dot. In this case, the lotus is also looking at the layout of the exit area from the top down, divided into three classes such as type lotus 16 petals. Second layer do pistil here is very narrow, thestamens is expressed as the minor diagonal line. Innermost layer (lotus mirror), who have rounded pods (shown lotus seeds) many as 21 seeds, including a relatively large particle in the middle and 20 small particles surrounding the 2 round (round and round in 8 out of 12) The lotus seeds are in the middle with two dual concentric circles and inside petals of the lotus is not only a border around edges but still leaves the whole point. Outside of lotus is a piece of wire type vines melon hand (more on next time). The outermost is the dot to each dot is surrounded by two concentric circles like the lotus seeds in the middle.
Lotus flower with 8 petal is also presented by way of looking at the area from above. In addition to eight main wing, with eight sub-ken off between each pair of wings. This decorative motifs on the two types of brick, a square, sized 34 x 34cm and a rectangular shape, size 74cm x 34cm. Square tiles in the lotus layouts, and rectangular types, people split blocks, two lotus flowers decorated on both sides. And short lotus petals in the heart of the petals have a border. Part lotus circle shown in the middle, with nine dots to show the image of the lotus seed with a coarse texture in the middle and eight smaller particles are classified into the side of a circle. Notably, the lotus petal and lotus seed pod without stamen as two type only one tape to smooth.
Lotus flower number is not fixed petals are quite diverse, are decorated at the top of the tile tubes winning drops. What kind of elongated lotus, lotus hat resourceful; have small, short, to shark kind; there is kind of long-torus alternating between the wings. The number is not fixed petals, a petals type 7, type 8, 9 petals, all stylized simplicity, only the lotus petals and mirror’s support. There is also a mirror’s support when no lotus seeds.
4 kinds of lotus flowers are pretty, proved Dinh – Tien Le time short but also creating products with unique mark in the history of the art.
Lotus in art of the Ly dynasty
This is the time when Buddhism thrived, is regarded as the state religion and lotus decorations are so many applications with the lotus, the Buddha in the lotus pedestal, lotus-shaped structures. Statistics stones for feet to the point of the tower columns, valances and ceramics pedestal … Where everyone has the right conditions are right for artists to decorate the lotus. Special projects related to Buddhism, the lotus theme as widely used.
Lotus supporting leg pillar: Due to anti-termite and damp so the pins are listed stone columns. Take advantage of it, the artist has decorative border around the lotus, feels like the entire temple is built on the lotus. Lotus feet are the same column with the lotus on the bricks at the time Dinh – Le, the layout of the wing into a circle-style look at the area from above. United wing includes 16 primary and 16 secondary wings. Things are different this time, the scheme does not represent the binary Li lotus and lotus, probably because the column mask. Notably, the heart of the lotus in the Ly relics related to the king, often touching rise further two dragons flanking the leaf problem. Precise definition delicate touch and respect seem noble lotus. Type are also found on some celadon pottery of this period.
Types of projects help the animals sacred lotus, is in the shape of lotus posture inclination to look, as do the lotus dock for the phoenix feet, the phoenix dance schemes in the order (the sheets in her temple, Hanoi internal), lotus as platform for the sacred objects in the image composition easy, or in the orchestra scheme, angels, dragons flanking the (at Phat Tich Pagoda) … Which generally supported the lotus leaves and topics.
Type pattern of lotus flowers combine wireless and other sacred flowers along the tape at the point of the tower or pedestal, this also shows vestige in Long Doi pagoda , Chuong Son towers. Artisan layout changes back to a lotus a daisy, is shown in the circles of wire flowers. Both this circle is almost tangential to meet each other and place a picture of the little angels are in the dance movements. The flowers here wire conventional in nature, actually a lotus leaf, chrysanthemum leaves have different stylized fact. The layout of the scheme in case the lotus is usually styled to look slightly inclined to see the lotus with the lotus seed. The lotus is also divided into two classes as the types of projects lotus sacred objects, but the underlying support of it just as radio has turned into a sweeping circle to take the whole upper part of the lotus. Although quite high but stylized blueprints lotus flowers are placed in the most standard type layout, symmetrical and simple in line and still describe the specific appearance of the lotus.
Lotus-type on celadon pottery is decorated in the heart of a celadon bowl (the museum exhibits the history of Hanoi). Into a small bowl, ivory-colored glaze turns slightly golden brown. Ceramic artisans engraved pattern on the ground, and then bring baked enamel. It is also a popular technique of celadon pottery Ly. The lotus is shown by way of looking sideways, in the heart decorative bowl. The flower stalk back to the center bowl, a lotus flower on a chrysanthemum flower, they are quite independent of each other. Total: 3 lotus and chrysanthemum 3 Lotus of many petals, widening the two sides to comply with the layout symmetry in the entire decorative scheme.
Lotus in art of the Tran dynasty
To the Tran dynasty, the topic is the lotus was succeeded in forming operators such as time of Ly dynasty. Notably, in some brown ceramic flower this time the project appeared lotus style with vivid realism. The only thing to distinguish is the lotus flowers in the heart of the Ly dragon sometimes or creeper flowers, but Tran no exist. Lotus in Tran time usually only hit a submerged torus edge under the edge of the petal and in the center of each petal are sometimes rounded point particles in a symmetrical layout is quite tight.
Lotus support schemes sacred objects such as the Tran plentiful support schemes phoenix feet above the steles in Tong pagoda (Hung Yen), support De leaves the in Thai Lac pagoda, Dau pagoda (Bac Ninh), at the foot of the column, also, especially in Thai Lac pagoda door, lotus support below the Phong statue, a standard theme of this period. On the pedestal of the statue of Tran dynasty are touching into the large lotus. Lotus with two or three layers, alternating, reflecting the popular masses, not just flowery . But there are also pedestal bottom layer farm just a touch decorative borders, the lotus is hit after another around the base, usually to form strong, tightly squeezed into a long line extended with tilt layout that many researchers called crooked lotus. In the heart of the lotus flower pictures more often touched by the circle combination.
Blueprints into stylized lotus flowers lines are used pretty much the Thai Lac pagoda architecture. And perhaps this is the only temple decorations this project. Lotus below the two dragons flanking the leaves are all formal offer or winding above the “cloud”, where the head of his maiden with human head birds body are just offering flowers.
Patterns on ceramic lotus flowers brown: Baked brown flowers are born at the end of the Ly and Tran dynasty thrive in, including many types, different designs. Type to like pots, crock. There are small, such as bowls, plates, jars, … Today artifacts left at some museums like the Museum of History, Museum of Fine Arts or the local museum in Hanoi, Nam Dinh, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Thanh Hoa, Ha Tay.vv.. Others are in private collections at home and abroad. On the pottery is usually divided into cells or into a tape to decorate using paint pens to the ground, then glaze and then brings heated liners. Topics include different types of decorative with lotus which accounts in large numbers. Lotus-type pattern is simple, just draw a sharp line but a few, as is the case in a pot collection of National Museum of Belgium, most of them are drawn in a sideways way of looking at … From a flower stalk at the bottom to rise up and then poured into two side petals wrapped around a station in the middle of the mirror’s support. Two petals are embracing the same lotus, blooming garden petals to the sides and wide bottom petals down below. So simple, but because the lotus is not removed within a framework for any post should look very lively. Artist’s sketch released diaphragm comfortable here. When they make a bold emphasis to a lotus, sometimes raising slid a detailed description of the flower or stem of a lotus. Each cell a flower, each flower a design, can stand alone or in combination with a few trees and lotus. Special projects on an pottery tower of Hai Duong museum, artists also draw more lotus and lotus leaves many design, layout leaves look the way down into the area from the circle to the array, see clearly the details of the veins. In a brown glaze jars History Museum in Hanoi, the lotus flower back into the layout winding wires are bent round. Each box is a lotus, looking sideways layout style, flowers such as both sides poured out at the other brown ceramic flowers. Festoon has many leaves, with leaves like a lotus, with leaves like the leaves of chrysanthemum that looks very lively.
Lotus in art of the Le preliminary
At the time Le preliminary, limited Buddhism, the temples are not developed, but the lotus is still the subject much attention. The lotus is not only decorated on the statue pedestal, base on foot temple columns, but also in various grades and imperial palaces on both the Ph.D stele in Van Mieu .
Lotus on the outside of the palace as in Kinh Thien (Hanoi), Lam Kinh (Thanh Hoa), the Van Mieu (Hanoi). Although the form of around the flowers creeper but still the center of the lotus flower. Lotus-style show looking sideways, clearly both layers of flowers. In the flower bud is secret sort not bloom. Next is the layer of lotus petals are the two sides shining like the layout of the blade of a fan. Because they are highly stylized, so difficult to recognize here the familiar lotus.
In wall of Lam Kinh palace is like the lotus in the step of Kinh Thien. Notably, there are several type not the brunch petal, which is both a lotus form an array as big as the lotus leaf and in between are the stylized twist. On the doorstep of Van Mieu (Hanoi), the lotus is still shown the exit spiral, lotus in the middle is touching way of looking sideways. Clearly the 3 into the lotus type have the same style shows. It is highly stylized way twisted, pure lines and sharp touch.
Lotus at the of stele valance: Some preliminary Le stele as Ph.D stele in Van Mieu (Hanoi – 1484), stele inCao pagoda (Ha Tay – 1505) … are decorated with lotus flowers mixed with the other. Lotus style layout to look sideways, while flowers are gather , most stations covering the mirror’s support, above the 3-layer petals are placed close together, the bottom has 3 small petals and large bloom. It is a case of stele valances in Cao pagoda. Also at the Temple of Literature stele is the same but the layout is somewhat simpler. In between are two lotus radio embraced the mirror, outside 5 petals next to it are the other sides, like the lotus pedestal Ngoc Kham Pagoda (Bac Ninh – XVII century)
The lotus pedestal on the statue: The statue stands Le preliminary, as the base of the pagoda Kham Lang (Bac Giang – 1432), Cao pagoda (Ha Tay-1505) … are decorated lotus. The style and details of the patterns closely resemble the lotus pedestal on the Tran. Especially in Kham Lang pagoda, in addition to the lotus, lotus has been touched by layer overlapping only see half picture, so that the tape length. Overlap style layout has also been found in the Tran dynasty. In Cung Kiem pagoda, at the foot of the pedestal stone Buddha dating to 1449, also shows a lotus floating on the waves, hit the exit looks slightly tilted, the lotus petals surrounding a lotus bub in the middle, leaves the external have wave shape, simple layout, little more.
Lotus image in the visual arts Vietnam is a very rich subject, expressed in many forms of decorative art and architecture for each period of national history. It not only provides valuable material for life, but also provide invaluable spiritual values with the Vietnamese. So the lotus image is not just inspired works of the craftsmen of old, but today modern artists still have more work successfully with the lotus theme, in many ways looks and language shape different, but they express the timeless aesthetic value of flowers that had crept into the soul of ethnic Vietnamese.
3. Lotus in the food culture of Vietnam:
From the influence of the lotus in the spiritual life of the people of Vietnam that led to the top of the lotus food culture.
The lotus flower parts are processed into the signature dish, with bold flavors of Vietnam as lotus jelly, lotus tea. Lotus in Tinh Tam lake of Hue ancient tea is used to marinate the king. People marinated tea at night. Lotus stamen is revealed when both heaven and earth are harmony, incense is still flowing. Tea is placed inside the flower and then tied through the night to absorb the entire tea lotus flavor. The next morning, the collection of tea, lotus tea scented Hue so pure and strong to passionately of people.
Hue lotus tea with lotus seeds, fresh, peeled, peel thin layers of silk, bore witness to the heart and cook in a bain-marie, with alum sugar that fragrance. Lotus tea scoop to ancient bowl in the small blue, only five or seven of golden lotus seed. During holidays or rider anniversary, lotus tea is something important almost indispensable in the food festival. There is only one bowl alone is enough to enjoy the “national spirit” of Hue!
In addition, people also use Hue lotus to cook lotus rice very well known in the traditional cuisine of Hue. How to cook lotus rice also very picky, the only real woman Hue mood is calm identity “daughter of a royal” that can cook lotus rice. In these dishes, “eight weapons,” lotus rice appeared with a style of Hue. Those who want to enjoy lunch visit the ancient capital Hue lotus in the lotus bloom season. In addition, there are many dishes from lotus bring more flavor and excellent Hue flavor.
There is a special feature is that the North of Vietnam usually used lotus leaf to package Com. The green grain jade Com becomes more flexible when located in the heart of fresh lotus leaves. Sweet fragrance of lotus leaf dissolve with Com flavor. It is a wonderful harmony that anyone has ever remember enjoying.